Do I need to remove an ovarian cyst?
Is an ovarian cyst dangerous, and if so, how much? How to treat her? Is it necessary to remove the cyst or can I do without surgery? These and similar questions arise in women when they make such a diagnosis.
What is a cyst?
This is a hollow formation in which the liquid is located. Simply put, this is a bubble (or bubble, if the formation is large), inside which there may be serous fluid, blood, pus, etc. (By the way, from the Greek cyst it translates as “bubble” or “bag”.) Cysts form on different body parts. Often they are located on the ovaries.
Ovarian cyst: what types are
The reasons for the appearance of cysts are very different. And how a cyst will behave depends on what kind of cyst it is.
In fact, this is not a follicle bursting during ovulation. It continues to grow, and a bubble forms, in which there is a clear liquid. Usually the follicular cyst does not exceed 5 cm and dissolves itself. But it can grow up to 5-8 cm, and then there is a risk that it will burst.
This species is formed from the corpus luteum – the formation of cells in which progesterone is produced after the egg leaves the follicle. Normally, the corpus luteum disappears by the beginning of menstruation. If it has not disappeared, a cyst with a yellowish fluid inside is formed from the body, its size is up to 8 cm.
Such formations most often pass on their own.
When a hemorrhage occurs in a follicular or luteal cyst and they are filled with blood, they speak of a hemorrhagic cyst.
Functional cyst may appear due to hormonal failure
All of the above cysts are classified as functional, their appearance is provoked, as a rule, by hormonal disruptions.
Cysts can be organic. These include endometrioid, dermoid, serous cysts.
It is formed during the growth on the ovary of endometrioid tissue, similar to the tissue of the uterine mucosa. The cyst has thick walls, often with commissures, and menstrual blood accumulates inside. Stagnating, the blood becomes brown.
A cyst of this type does not pass on its own and requires treatment.
Formed from ovarian tissue. Inside there is a jelly-like substance with inclusions of various tissues, as well as hair, skin, teeth, sweat glands, etc. This is due to the fact that a similar cyst develops from germ layers due to disturbances at the stage of embryo formation.
Dermoid formation can grow up to 15 cm. As a rule, it is localized on the right ovary. This cyst is considered a benign tumor. Itself does not pass.
This is a formation filled with a clear serous fluid. Such a cyst can reach 30 cm in diameter. Belongs to benign tumors.
There are other types of cystic formations – papillary cystoma, mucidous cystoma. All of them are considered as benign tumors.
How does an ovarian cyst manifest
Symptoms of a cyst are determined by its type and size.
If they are small, then they may not appear at all, and they are found quite by accident when they conduct a scheduled inspection. Sometimes the cycle is broken (delay, long and strong menstruation). Hemorrhagic cysts are characterized by a pulling pain localized in the lower abdomen.
Endometrioid ovarian cyst gives the following symptoms:
heavy, irregular and painful periods, lasting a week or more;
pain in the lower abdomen of a aching character;
in the intermenstrual period, spotting;
pain in the vagina during intercourse;
weakness and fatigue.
Depending on the nature of the cyst, menstruation may be abundant or weak.
Dermoid and cutaneous cysts of small sizes do not appear. With the growth of education:
pains develop in the abdomen, in its lower part, in the groin area;
there is heaviness, a feeling of fullness;
the abdomen enlarges, protrudes from the side where the “diseased” ovary is;
due to compression of the intestinal cyst, constipation may occur;
The growth of serous ovarian cysts is also accompanied by such symptoms:
sexual intercourse becomes painful;
the cycle is broken, bleeding becomes profuse or weak;
weakness appears, performance decreases.
Ovarian Cyst: Complications
The cyst can pass on its own, but when it does not disappear, it begins to grow, the pressure in it increases, and the cyst can burst. This condition is dangerous, its result can be peritonitis – inflammation of the peritoneum.
Twisting the legs
If the formation is large and has a leg, then the latter can be twisted. In this case, the veins are compressed, the blood flow in the cyst is disturbed. Torsion of the legs is dangerous with necrosis – the death of tissues. This complication is more common with dermoid, luteal cysts.
The inflammatory process can affect a cyst of any kind. The causes are genital infections, manipulations on the genitals (curettage), the spiral not removed in time. Untreated infection leads to infertility.