What is the danger of rubella in adults?
German measles, measles rubella, rubella – rubella, a viral disease related to childhood infections, is hidden behind all these names. Children are more susceptible to this infection, but an adult can also get it. Moreover, in recent years there have been more cases of “adult” rubella.
Why do adults get sick?
Strange as it may seem, this is due to universal vaccination.
When a child is ill with rubella, he has a lifelong immunity, that is, this infection is no longer afraid of him. This happens in the vast majority, although you can get sick again with serious violations in the immune system, individual characteristics of the immune system.
Rubella vaccine is given in accordance with the vaccination schedule to all children at the age of one year, then before school and at the age of 14-17. Most vaccinated children do not get rubella. After vaccination, immunity is formed, but unlike lifelong immunity after illness, vaccination provides protection for 8–10–15 years, for whom it is. And by the age of 25-30, the body is unarmed before infection. True, doctors recommend that all adults get vaccinated every 10 years, but have you met many people who wanted to be vaccinated against childhood illness?
All adults need to be vaccinated.
So now adults are sick. After all, rubella is a contagious disease, as doctors say, with a high degree of contagiousness, is easily transmitted by airborne droplets. But the cases of rubella in children have become much less.
How does rubella manifest in adults
In much the same way as in children, with the exception of some features. But the signs of rubella in adults are more pronounced, the disease is more severe: with fever, headaches, conjunctivitis – and can cause serious complications.
The incubation period: from the moment of penetration to the expressed manifestations – usually lasts 2-3 weeks.
The first sign of rubella is deterioration, malaise, and fever. In adults, the temperature can rise up to 40 degrees.
Lymph nodes become inflamed and enlarged: they can be lymph nodes on the neck, back of the head, under the armpits, in the groin.
Symptoms of ARVI: runny nose, sore throat, cough.
Rubella can cause sore throats and inflame lymph nodes on the body.
There is a severe headache, which is very difficult to relieve.
Eyes turn red and watery, conjunctivitis with purulent discharge later appears.
Muscles and joints hurt, like with flu.
After 2 days, a rash appears on the body. It begins first on the face, on the mucous membranes (on the palate), then on the bends of the arms and legs, then on the back, lower back, buttocks. Unlike children, in adults the rash with rubella does not look like small dots, it merges into large red spots. The rash does not itch, does not hurt. It lasts from 4 to 7 days and passes without a trace.
A week before the appearance of the rash, the patient can transmit the infection to others, but the rash is the most infectious period.
These are symptoms of the classic form of rubella in adults. But the disease can manifest itself without a rash (atypical form) and even generally without symptoms – only mild manifestations of a cold. And in such cases, if the correct diagnosis is not made, the person becomes a source of infection, not suspecting it.
What is the danger of rubella in adults?
Along with the fact that rubella can be very difficult in adults, it is dangerous primarily due to serious complications.
Inflammatory diseases of the brain: encephalitis, meningitis. Manifested by severe headache, fever, vomiting, convulsions. Often there are disorders of consciousness. Possible coma, death.
Rubella is a very serious disease for adults
Arthritis. Rubella virus can cause joint inflammation, most commonly affecting the small joints of the foot. The foot in the joint area becomes red, swollen, sore. Arthritis can result in disability.
Pneumonia. Pneumonia as a complication of rubella develops very quickly. Along with enlarged lymph nodes, a strong cough, respiratory failure, pain behind the sternum occur. A bacterial infection may join.
Thrombocytopenic purpura. It is characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood and is manifested by the appearance of hemorrhages on the skin, increased bleeding of the gums, and uterine bleeding.
Angina. Symptoms are pain when swallowing, fever, hoarseness. The usual antibiotic treatment with such a sore throat will not help.
Otitis. Manifested by severe pain in the ear, hearing impairment. Without treatment, it can lead to hearing loss.
But rubella presents the greatest danger to women who are expecting a baby. Rubella in pregnant women is fraught with fetal death, deformities, developmental pathologies.